Medical procedures by which structural problems in the brain are repaired is called brain surgery. There are various types of brain surgeries, depending on the area of the brain and the condition of the problem the type of surgery is used. New improved and advanced technologies have made it possible for surgeons to operate on part of the brain without making a single incision in or near head.
Brain is the most important part of a body as it regulates the whole body. The surgery of the brain is a critical and complicated process. Depending on the condition of the patient and the complexity involved, the surgeon select the type of surgery to be done.
Why brain surgery is done
The physical abnormalities of the brain are are corrected by Brain surgery. Which can be because of birth defect, disease, injury, or other problems.
A Person may need surgery if they face any of the following conditions in or around the brain:
Types of brain surgery
As per the condition and place of surgery to be made , surgeons decide the type of surgery to be opted for.
During open brain surgery, the surgeon may remove tumor , or clip off an aneurysm, drain blood and fluid from the infection , and may remove abnormal brain tissues.
When the surgery is done the bone flap is placed back and fixed by placing plates and wires. This hole may be left open in some cases like when tumor is seen or when there is some infection or swelling in the brain .when it is left open the procedure is called as craniectomy.
In order to examine the brain tissue or tumor its close analysis is needed which is done by removing a small amount of tissue or tumor by making a small incision and hole in the skull.
Minimally invasive endonasal endoscopic surgery
In this type of surgery tumor or lesions are removed through nose and sinuses, because of which there is no need to make any incision to access the parts of the brain. An endoscope is used in the procedure which is a telescopic device equipped with camera and lights to enable surgeons to see the site of work. This is used by doctors for tumors on pituitary gland, tumors on the base of the skull, tumors which are at the bottom of the brain.
Deep brain stimulation
In this procedure a small hole is made in the skull and rather than removing a piece of tissue, small electrode is inserted by surgeon into deep part of the brain.The electrode which is placed is connected to a battery in the chest ,and electric signals are transmitted by it to help symptoms of different disorders,such as parkinson’s disease.
The risks involved in brain surgery
As all the surgeries involve some risk factor depending on the condition of the patient, similarly the brain surgery which is a major medical surgery involves a higher amount of risk, some of them are:
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After the successful brain surgery the patient is closely monitored to make sure that the functioning of the body is going smoothly . the patient is seated in raised position so that swelling can be prevented from face and brain of the patient.Time involved in recover Depends on the complications involved in the surgery and the type of surgery performed. Stay in hospital usually last up to a week or more which depends on the patient responding to the medications and recovery procedure.
Before getting discharge from hospital the further follow up checkups are allotted to the patient and a complete care process is explained.