Kidneys are pair of organs which filter blood and remove toxins from body. These toxins are sent to bladder and body removes toxins during urination. The kidneys make hormones that control blood pressure, maintain blood metabolism and production of red blood cells. Kidney failure occurs when kidneys lose the ability to filter waste from blood. Many factors can interfere with kidney function and health such as:
End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) or Kidney-failure is the last stage of chronic kidney disease. When kidney fails, it is difficult to survive without kidney transplant or dialysis at Best Nephrology Hospitals in India.
There are various types of kidney failure:
The causes of kidney failures are:
Insufficient blood flow or sudden loss of blood flow to kidney can cause kidney failure. Some conditions that that cause loss of blood flow are:
Cancer (colon, cervical, bladder or prostate cancer) can block the urine passageways, building up toxins and overloading the kidneys. Other conditions interfering urination include:
Some other conditions that may lead to kidney failure are:
Sometimes there are few symptoms and sometimes none are present. The symptoms include:
The several tests to diagnose kidney failure are:
It is one of the simplest tests to diagnose kidney failure. The low urinary output means kidney disease is due to urinary blockage.
The blood test is done to measure substances that are filtered by kidneys such as creatinine (Cr) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN). A rise in these substances level can indicate kidney failure.
Tests such as CT, MRIs and ultrasound provide images of kidney and find any blockage.
In this test, doctor will use kidney biopsy to collect tissue sample. Biopsy is a simple procedure in which sample is collected with the help of biopsy needle inserted through skin down to the kidney.
The doctor takes urine sample to test for ay abnormalities, such as abnormal sugar or protein.
The type of treatment to be done depends on the reason of kidney failure. The best nephrologist in India will determine the best treatment option, which may include:
In dialysis, blood is filtered using a machine. This machine performs the function of the kidneys. Depending on the type of dialysis, patient may be connected to portable catheter bag or a large machine. It is not cure for kidney failure, but can extend life if one goes to scheduled treatments.
Another treatment option is a kidney transplant. One has to wait to receive a donor kidney that is compatible. The advantages of transplant are that new kidney will work properly and dialysis is not required. Patient have to take immunosuppressive drugs after the surgery and these drugs have their own side effects.
There are various preventative steps that one can take to reduce the risk of kidney failure. Taking medication that is too high can increase toxin levels in body. This can overload the kidneys. Whenever possible, limit exposure to chemicals and other toxic products.